STUCC MARBLE - SCAGLIOLA
Since the man in the Prehistory developed the artistic sensitivity, different natural resources have been used as a form of expression and decoration of their environment. Some of these materials are lime and plaster, and the result of artistic handling is the stucco. The nobility of these raw materials, its everlasting, its finish waterproof and the reinforcement that offers to the murals are some of the features that allow us to testify this technique in times very remote.
The technique of stucco to the cal is more primitive and widespread. The find documented by the end of Neolithic to the floor and walls, reaching a greater development with the cultural flowering of the first civilizations. The cal mixed with pigments is and decorates the walls of tombs, temples, palaces and all kinds of public and private buildings of Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece and Rome. He was highlighted by the famous Roman architect Framework Vitruvius in his work " Ten books on architecture" where documents for the first time the term to refer to the coverings with cal. It is not Surprising that Vitruvius in the century I.C give special attention to this technique and he devoted a few words, if you look to that in this century is dating the excellent stucco of Pompeii to show by a side that was a technique in use and fashion and, of course the professionalization and mastery of the craft. The Arabs were excellent artisans of the mortar to the lime and led the technique to its fullest expression, refinándola and diversifying its uses. Reinvented the technique and is believed to be the first to introduce the plaster. The best example of this, are the decorations of excellent Stucco and plaster work that we can see in the Alhambra. The Arab influence of the job was in the Christian society giving good testimony to this works such as the Monastery of Santa Clara in Tordesillas or the graffiti segovianos.
The stucco marble or scagliola is another great variant of stucco. Its material basis now is the plaster that is mixed with water, pigments and queues to get a genuine and excellent imitation marble. It is a technique much later that born of the ingenuity of trying to make worthy decorations in a time in the conflict, the economy and politics made very complicated matter in distant lands the marbles and japes. Its origin have to look for it in Italy in the 1600S in full maturity of the Renaissance. Of this demand and need emerged true artists who came to get results of stucco inlaids that made complicated differentiate as natural as artificial. The technique of stucco marble offered multiple possibilities and quickly reached a high prestige and began to proliferate in the art furniture, facades and interiors of the heritage of royalty and nobility. Both techniques fell into disuse from the nineteenth century, in favor of other fashions and materials (fabric, papers, acrylic, cementos) and with it the craft of fibrous plasterer. In the present work with the stucco and especially the stucco marble is restricted to the restoration of cultural heritage and a little sector interior of the high decoration, which in some way is boosting its name. There are very few craftsmen who currently known this art with professionalism and less even those who have learned of the hand of past Grand masters plasterers of twentieth century, experts who knew of the motion, and the traditional technique and that have left excellent works in the architecture and decoration of quality of the last century.
In a current market in the premium as exclusive and the trend, there are fashionable
are being fashion decorations of stucco based on paintings siliconadas, which have nothing to do with the old techniques and that the only thing that resemble the stucco craft are in the prices exorbitant to being charged. Who love this craft we do not want the name of stucco is disseminated with these examples and that the general public draw up a misconception of this technique craft. In our artistic awareness is the overwhelming burden cultural that Stucco has in the history of art and in the artistic heritage. Have decorated and protected cathedrals, churches, palaces, facades... Great craftsmen and artists managed and knew manipulate legacy works of great beauty and splendor. There is no doubt that in the now looks much more than before for the protection and preservation of cultural and artistic heritage. However, it is important action not only should be designed to protect and restore the works of art, but also the techniques and craft that have made it possible those treasures. The office of fibrous plasterer not only is losing but also this corrupting by the absence of promotion of the technique, the disinformation and lack of transmission of the craft a new trainees.
We have to recover the idea of a job well done. All lovers of these arts we have to make these trades endure and work in adapting to modernity. This technique has the favorable characteristic of offering numerous possibilities for modeling and color with the only limit of the creativity and imagination of the artist. This is a very positive factor that allows adapt to new forms of expression and demands if and when it respects the quality and tradition.. The market for the stucco craft can live together perfectly with the industrial market as other offices to ( jewelry, haute couture...) although it before it is very important to promote and of the traditional technique for the public to know differentiate artisan of the industrial. Only then we will ensure that one of the Artistic techniques more overtime recover the value and prestige it deserves.
Let us hope that this innate curiosity and need to learn and understand the human beings we returned.
Hello, My name is Oscar Urruela and live in Bilbao (Spain). I am fibrous plasterer by profession and i write with the aim of share with you a personal project based on recover, teach and to provide greater dissemination to the traditional technique of stucco marble. I have the fate of having learned from my father the job of stucco marble or scagliola, learned to turn by him in an Italian company of two brothers called AXERIO. These brothers came from a village in northern Italy, in Valsesia called S. Giuseppe Rima, which says that i believe the technique and in which the majority of the inhabitants the working. This signature was responsible for enforcing the work of stucco marble in the construction of the third tranche of the Gran Via de Madrid, in which my grandfather was responsible and my father devoted to make artistic soil, with a technique for drawing up very similar to that of the stucco marble. The match with them in many of these works are very interested in learning this technique. Thanks to the friendship that made and not without many reticence these agreed to teach.
For more than 30 years he worked, both the stucco marble as the stucco to fire or hot iron. Played works by all of Spain and especially in the north, doing restoration work and new work in schools, palaces, churches, theaters, banks and other buildings.... that may currently be seen.
Consolidated since my father in the profession and devoted entirely to this craft, it was like i from the 14 years i started to work at his side and learned the technique of its direct teaching in the works and in the workshop.
My profession to over 20 years of working life has not been other than that of fibrous plasterer and i have devoted to work the stucco in their different techniques in new construction and restoration projects. At present also devoted part of my time to investigate and to create works of an artistic with this Technique.
-* Stucco to fire (restoration work)
-* stucco stone (restoration work and implementation)
-* restoration of natural stone and marble
-* stucco plaster applied with flat
- stucco to lime (work of works in interiors, facades and realization of murals artistic)
-*Exhibitions in galleries and cultural spaces by Spain and from the end of 2010 also by Europe (Vienna-Munich-Milan-Venice-Rome) with paintings and sculptures in stucco marble and the cal.
In relation to the stucco marble, i have spent all these years to learn well the motion, and the technical side of a grand master, who, with its 84 years, i still advises technically. He has taught me all the secrets of the materials, the handling of the different tools, etc.
My full commitment to the motion has made me love and assess the technique, being fully aware of ignorance and disuse that there are at present. The modernity and industry brings other materials and other techniques that are to resemble the stucco marble, but in any case can be compared. Due to the secrecy that has been provided the profession and a shortage of craftsmen who can say they have learned of the masters plasterers of the last century, this traditional technique is disappearing, remain today very few professionals and companies that are devoted to it. Aware that the technique of stucco marble, used in numerous works of art in the course of history, is part of the cultural heritage and we cannot allow to lose, i start in this project that today i want to share with you.
I am getting in contact with plasterers to national and international levels to work the stucco marble with the objective of creating a joint project for the recovery of the profession and in turn creating a Web in order to disclose more deeply these wonderful techniques.
I have always known that some day my experience would give me enough confidence to dedicate myself to this and now i feel ready. As I said before is a profession that has always been taught with much suspicion and i think it is time to break with this. I offer to sharing, learning and teaching what my father and the experience have given me, working professionally in restoration projects, creation and training.
For any doubt or information does not hesitate to contact me in the email address indicated.
Thank you for your attention.
Carefully, greets them.
Oscar Urruela Sacristan
Some pictures of some of my works in Scagliola